Our customer service representatives are available 24 hours a day, from Monday to Sunday.
Creative Diagnostics offers a series of fluorescent polystyrene particles, commonly used in biological field for tracing, cell labeling, in vivo imaging, drug discovery research and calibration of flow cytometry, among other applications. DiagPoly™ Fluorescent Polystyrene Particles are prepared by either incorporation of selected fluorophores into monodisperse polystyrene particles by means of swelling processes or by copolymerization of styrene with various organic fluorescent dyes, these processes generate fluorophores labeled polystyrene particles with favorable properties:
Fluorescent polystyrene particles with various single or multiple fluorophores, sizes, emission spectra and surface functional groups.
There are currently several strategies of attaching biological ligands to the polystyrene particles used as solid phase supports in immunological tests and assays, including adsorption to plain polystyrene particles, covalent attachment to surface functionalized particles, and attachment of the ligand of interest to particles that are pre-coated with a binding protein such as Streptavidin, Protein A or Protein G, etc. Fluorescent Polystyrene Particles are internally dyed, which frees the surface of the beads for protein adsorption or covalent linking via functional groups.
The original method for attachment of proteins to hydrophobic microspheres was passive adsorption. Because of the simplicity and flexibility of this method, it is still widely used today. Such physical protein adsorption is governed by van der Waals forces, hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding between the hydrophobic portions of the adsorbed ligands and the polymeric surface of the polystyrene particles.
Covalent attachment strategies are more specific than physical adsorption and include chemical reaction between different residues (e.g., amine, carboxyl, aldehyde-sulfate) of interacting molecules. Covalent coupling is often employed for the immobilization of biomolecules when a very active and stable microsphere reagent is required. Bioconjugation conditions between the biomolecule and particles via covalent bonding must be consistent, predictable, and stable for quality polystyrene particles–antibody interactions. To achieve binding with optimum antibody orientation, the solvent conditions such as buffer-type, pH, and ionic concentration play a critical role.
Protein pre-coated ligands (affinity binding ligands) make use of specific binding interactions between molecules and can aid in the rapid development or streamlined production of microsphere reagents. They provide the opportunity for optimal orientation of the ligand, as with end-point immobilization of biotinylated oligonucleotides to streptavidin-coated microspheres, or the Fc-specific immobilization of antibodies via Protein A or G.
There are numbers of standard dyes which we can easily incorporate into these polymer particles. Beyond these dyes, we can custom manufacture fluorescent polystyrene particles with a dye of your choice.
Please contact us if you need assistance in selecting beads for your application.